gold and red hindu deity figurine
gold and red hindu deity figurine

Rigveda is an ancient Veda written in Sanskrit language which is considered to be the fundamental and major religious text of Indian culture. This Veda is one of the four major literary works of Vedic literature and is the first and most ancient part of the four Vedas along with Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda. Rigveda means 'knowledge of creation' or 'collection of mantras'.
It is a collected literary composition of Veda Suktas which starts moving forward as a complete Veda along with Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanishads. Rig Veda contains a collection of hymns about various deities, natural phenomena, religion, yagya, worship, Brahma, soul etc.
Rigveda is a major Vedic text of Indian culture which is the first and oldest of the Vedas. It is the main source of the Vedas and contains knowledge about the creation of the world, natural methods, humans, gods, seasons, Vedic sacrifices, etc. Rigveda universe is specially composed with prayers and mantras of Gods like Goddess Devi, Agni, Vayu, Dyau, Prithvi, Dyu, Surya, Som, Aap, Varun, Mitra, Indra, Vishwakarma, Vishnu, Brahma etc.

The Rigveda is divided into four Samhitas: Madhyandin Samhita, Kaushitaki Samhita, Shankhayana Samhita, and Shakala Samhita. The Madhyamik Samhita is even generally considered to be of universal origin and it also contains the Haidimba Samhita, which is the spiritual part of the ancient Vedic literature.

The mantras of Rigveda discuss creation, universe, life, human beings and various aspects of their life. These mantras tell about the purpose of life, ideals, righteousness, yagya, seasons, nature, varnas, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, and various gods and goddesses. This Vedic text is an important source of foundation of Indian culture and religiosity and plays an important role in spiritual development. This is an important text of the abstract stream of culture which is important for studying the infinity and uniqueness of Brahma. By studying it we can understand the path of our life and live a strong and idealistic life.

Rigveda is considered to be of four types -

This is the main part of Rigveda and contains a collection of mantras. There is a special arrangement, composition, and structure of mantras in the Samhita. It contains a collection of mantras of the sages of ancient times for prayers to various deities, seasons, natural rituals, and yagyas. The language of the Samhita is Sanskrit and it is read with rhyme.

Brahmins discuss the methods, procedures, and meanings of yagya and havan according to the Rigveda. This detail is for the Acharyas and priests so that they can perform the Yagyas in the right way.

The Aranyaka Vedic focuses on the thoughts, methods and methods of penance during the Vanyaprastha stage of life i.e. the time of living in the forest. In this, spiritual ideas are expanded and their meanings are discussed.

These are the last parts of the Vedas which show how there is unity between the soul and God and how salvation can be achieved. These are about the peace and spiritual knowledge of life beyond the Gods and Yagyas of the Vedas. The objective of Upanishad is to attain salvation.

Rigveda contains many mantras, and these mantras are divided into various suktas and mandalas. The language of Rigveda is in Vedic Sanskrit, which is called Vedic Samhita language. Let us know in detail about the various Mandals and Suktas:

Mandalas 1-6 -
These first six mandalas relate to the mantras of various deities, seasons, natural rituals and yagyas. Here mantras from the first Sukta to the eighth Sukta of the sixth Mandal are included.

Mandalas 7-10 -
In these mandalas, the prayers, glories, and qualities of various deities are described by the sages.

Mandala 10 -
--------------------This mandala is also known as Ekadashi Mandala and contains mantras of various thoughts, prosperity, and knowledge.

Apart from the Rig Veda, there are also its follower texts like Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads which make it complete and help in understanding its meaning. In these also various mantras and knowledge have been discussed which inspire on various aspects of life.

The first chapter of Rigveda is one of the most ancient and important chapters, which contains a total of 191 hymns. Here the glories of various deities, prayers, updates, description of seasons, Vedic Yagyas, and various types of seasons are described by the ancient sages.

Mandalas 1 to 6 contain a variety of mantras and hymns -

Mandala 1-
The first mandala describes the prayers and glories of the gods. In this, the glory of gods like Agni, Indra, Vayu, Varun, Aditya, Vishwakarma, Apa etc. has been sung.

Mandala 2 -
In this mandala, the seasons and their importance have been described by the sages.

Mandala 3 -
Here the feelings, prayers, and observances of the seasons are described by the ancient sages.

Mandala 4 -
This mandala contains prayers and mantras for yagyas, seasons, and various deities.

Mandala 5 -
Here the importance of Brahmaism and philosophy is described, in relation to luck, economic progress, and yagyas.

Mandala 6 -
In this mandala, the variety of seasons, their importance, and the use of seasons in yagyas have been described by the sages.

These mandalas are the first 6 mandalas of Rigveda, which describe the glories, prayers and updates of gods, seasons, yagyas, Aditya, Apa, Indra, Agni, Vayu, Varun, Vishwakarma, and Brahma etc. in Vedic Sanskrit.

The Rigveda is divided into four major sections, called "Samhita". These four circles are:

Mandala 1-6 -
This is the first part of the Rigveda, which is considered to be the oldest part of the entire Veda. Here the glories, prayers and adhyayas of the gods, seasons, yagyas, Aditya, Apa, Indra, Agni, Vayu, Varuna, Vishwakarma, Brahma, and other deities are described.

Division 7-10 -
This part contains the collection of mantras made by different seasons and ancient sages.

Mandala 10 -
This mandala is the smallest and contains very important mantras, in which various yagyas, seasons and the glories of the gods are described.

Apaurusheya Brahmin Mandal -
This is a special part of the Vedas and contains a collection of Brahmin texts which are based on the descriptions of various yagyas and seasons of the Vedas.

Thus, the Rigveda is divided into four types of mandalas, in which different types of mantras, adyatanas, seasons, deities, and yagyas are described.

The seventh Mandal of Rigveda is completely full of hymns and it has a total of 1048 hymns. These mandalas are on various subjects, such as Yagya, Brahma, Dharma, seasons, rains, natural festivals, gods of the seasons, glory of other gods, and various aspects of human life. This circle is the medium of various aspects of life and the nature of the world.

Let us know the features of this circle in detail:

Division 7 -
Sukta 1-59: It contains praises of the seasons, the laws of the world, rainfall, glorification of various gods and description of human life.
Sukta 60-103: Importance of yagyas and seasons, benefits of rain, prayers to gods etc. are discussed.
Sukta 104-114: Here natural festivals and social charity are described.

Division 8 -
In this mandala, the religious practices of the ancient Arya Samaj, the glory of yagyas and seasons have been discussed.

Division 9 -
Sukta 1-46: Yajnas and the origin of the world are discussed.
Sukta 47-114: Importance of yagyas, caste system, qualifications of Brahmins have been discussed.

Division 10 -

Sukta 1-34: It contains praises of various gods and descriptions of their glory.
Sukta 35-114: It contains a detailed discussion of yagyas, seasons, sages, Brahmins, morals and various aspects of Vedic culture.
In these mandalas, various aspects have been discussed by the sages and the glory of Vedic culture and yagyas are described here. Here the vision and thinking of the sages on various subjects have been discussed which inspires the excellent knowledge and religiosity of their times.

Dasham Mandal of Rig Veda is an important part of Vedic culture which contains the collection of mantras of sages on various subjects. Here is the description of the main subjects of this division:

Suktas 1-34: These Suktas discuss the praises of various deities, their glory, and their religious significance. Here the qualities, functions, and reverence for the gods have been discussed.

Sukta 35-114: This part contains a collection of important teachings of the sages on various subjects. There is a detailed discussion of yagyas, seasons, sages, Brahmins, morals and various aspects of Vedic culture.

The glory and importance of various deities are described in the Dasam Mandal of Rigveda. It contains mantras about Lord Agni, Lord Surya, Lord Soma, Lord Vayu, Lord Varuna, etc. describing their glories and natural methods. It contains mantras on Yagya, seasons, sages, Brahmins, morals and important topics of Vedic culture which discuss various aspects of human life.

The Apaurusheya Brahmana Mandal of the Rigveda is an important part of the Vedas, which contains a collection of mantras regarding yagyas and seasons. Here is the description of the main topics of this circle:

This mandala contains details of various types of yagyas, the methods of their organisation, and their importance. The natural rules of Yagyas and their related mantras have been described in this Mandal.

The role of the host and the importance of the seasons have been especially highlighted in this mandala. The change of seasons has been explained in detail.

There is an important discussion of Vedic culture, conduct and thoughts in this Mandal. Vedic beginning, glory of culture, religion and types of conduct and thoughts are described in this section.

The Apaurusheya Brahmana Mandal describes the early Yagyas, seasons, exchanges, and important aspects of the Vedic culture of the Rigveda, making it possible to explain the origin of the Vedic culture and its fundamental elements. Vedic sacrificial rituals, aditana, and important aspects of Vedic culture are described here, which helps in understanding the living and aditana stream of the authoritative Vedas.

Rigveda is an ancient Vedic code which contains important information about Indian culture and knowledge. Here are examples of some major mantras from the Rigveda:


Agnimilee Purohitam Yagyasya Devam Ritvijan.
Hotaram Ratnadhatamam.

अग्निमीळे पुरोहितं यज्ञस्य देवं ऋत्विजं।
होतारं रत्नधातमम्॥


Vayuranilammritamathedam bhasmantam shariram.
Om krato smar krtam smar krtam smar.

वायुरनिलममृतमथेदं भस्मान्तं शरीरम्।
ओं क्रतो स्मर कृतं स्मर कृतं स्मर।


Indram Mitram Varunmagnimahurtho Divyaah Sa Suparno Garutman.
Ekam sadvipraah bahudha vadanti.

इंद्रं मित्रं वरुणमग्निमाहुरथो दिव्यः स सुपर्णो गरुत्मान।
एकं सद्विप्राः बहुधा वदन्ति॥


Ushasah Sunvantu Vam Yagya.
Deva Devotamah.

उषासः सुन्वन्तु वाम यज्ञं।
देवा देवोतामाः॥

These are just a few examples of mantras, there are many more mantras in Rigveda which are about various deities, creatures, and yagyas and studying them carefully provides spiritual and religious knowledge.

Swasti Mantra is one of the characteristically important mantras in Rigveda, which is used to pray for good luck and peace. Swasti is a Sanskrit word which means 'auspicious' or 'good'. This word is used to wish for auspiciousness, happiness, prosperity, peace, and prosperity. If we get all these special qualities in the circumstances that come in life, this is Swasthi.

A famous example of Swasti Mantra is –

Swasti na indro vridhashravah.
Swasti Naah Pusha Vishwavedaah.
Swasti Nastarkshyo Arishtanemih.
Swasti no Brihaspatirddhatu.

स्वस्ति न इन्द्रो वृद्धश्रवाः।
स्वस्ति नः पूषा विश्ववेदाः।
स्वस्ति नस्तार्क्ष्यो अरिष्टनेमिः।
स्वस्ति नो वृहस्पतिर्दधातु।

In this mantra, Swasti is prayed to various deities, which is made for attainment of auspiciousness and happiness. It is a form of blessing and prayer that addresses everyone and best wishes for all.

Rigveda can be divided into different types based on its different parts and types –

It is a collection of the oldest and main Samhitas of Rigveda. It is from here that the Adi Samhita of the Rigveda begins and it contains the collection of the most ancient mantras.

The branches of Rigveda are divided into different Brahmins and Aranyakas. In these, each branch recites the mantras of Rigveda in different language and pronunciation according to their respective teachers and schools.

These are the later parts of the Rigveda and discuss various methods of updating. In these, detailed descriptions of Vedic life and yagyas are given.

The later parts of Rigveda are called Upanishads which are high level creations of Vedic knowledge. In these, expanded knowledge about Brahma and soul has been presented.
This division of the Rigveda reflects the diversity and importance of the Vedic literature which is an important part of Indian culture and religious ideology.

The original part of the Rigveda, called Samhita, is the most ancient and important part of the Vedas. This part was first composed by the sages of the Veda and contains a collection of mantras which were used for various worships, yagyas and seasons. The code of Rigveda is divided into four main codes - Madhyandin, Kaushitaki, Shankhayan, and Ashvalayan. Among these, Madhyandi Samhita is the most popular.

The Rigveda Samhita consists of approximately 10,552 mantras, which are divided into 1,028 suktas (parts). These mantras are in Rig Vedic Sanskrit and their pleasant sound and structure are very distinctive. These mantras describe natural scenes, glory of Gods and Goddesses, importance of Yagyas, and various spiritual and philosophical topics.

The mantras of Rigveda Samhita contain spiritual, social, and travel messages. These mantras guide humans on the path of righteousness, adherence to ideals, and living in celibacy. This leads to the development of a person's soul and his enthusiasm for the purpose of his life. Furthermore, this Samhita elaborates on various yagyas and their rules, which play an important role in the development of unity and culture of the society.

The Brahmins of the Rigveda elaborate the religious and sacrificial ideals of Indian culture. This section is an important part of Vedic literature which explains various aspects of yagyas, pujas, and conducts. These describe the variety of Vedic yagyas, their procedures, and their natural and religious significance.
In the Brahmana part, the procedures of yagyas, the use of mantras, and their significance in perspective are described in detail. Here are described the methods, rules, and methods of worship that were traditionally followed in various yagyas. This part explains the purpose of yagyas, their principles, ideals, and importance of religious meaning.
The Brahmin portion explains the yagyas by describing the mantras of the Rigveda Samhita, from which the correct and ancient perspective of the Vedic yagyas can be understood. The Brahmanas contain unique details regarding the teachings given by the sages, the significance of the mantras, and the yagyas which are evidence of an ideal sacrificial life.

These Samhitas contain information about the form, rules, description, and ideal yagyas which are important from spiritual and social perspective. These sections analyze the objectives, rationale, and vital aspects of life behind the Vedic sacrifices, which are the foundation of a constitutional and ideal Brahmanic life.

After the Rig Veda, the Aranyakas are an appendage of Vedanta, which come after the Brahmanas and Upanishads. The word Aranyaka means 'forest' or 'aranya', and these texts are for sages living in forest regions or forests. These contain meditation, penance, yoga, spiritual thoughts and important messages of his life.
The main objective of Aranyaka Vedanta is to preach spiritual knowledge through worship, yoga, meditation, and ways to apply them in one's life. These texts were composed for the sages living in the forests, who moved towards spiritual progress by doing introspection and meditation in the forest areas.
Aranyaka Vedanta describes the importance of various forms of Vedic Yagyas, Pranayama, Dyutiya Adhyaya etc. These texts tell about the important steps of spiritual life, which are meant to guide the sages living in the forest areas in their sadhana and spiritual rituals.
Aranyaka Vedanta preaches suitable methods for spiritual progress and attainment of the soul and also states that for this progress qualities like prudence and humility are required. Aranyaka Vedanta also gives an important analysis of the importance of Vedic culture and religion and provides religious and ideal guidance for life.

After the Rigveda, the Upanishads are an important part of Vedanta, which deeply discusses the spiritual knowledge of the Vedas. These texts are important pillars of Indian philosophical and spiritual culture. The Upanishads are also called Vedanta, because they come at the end of the Vedas and discuss their spiritual fortunes.
In the Upanishads, there is a deep discussion about the soul, God, creation of the world, salvation, Brahma, meditation, life, Panchakosha, Yagya, religion, and the world. These texts tell about the path of spiritual progress, attainment of true knowledge, and salvation of life.
In the Upanishads, there is a deep discussion about the soul, God, creation of the world, salvation, Brahma, meditation, life, Panchakosha, Yagya, religion, and the world. The Upanishads have revealed the ways to attain true knowledge and attain salvation through the path of yoga, knowledge, devotion, and action.
In the Upanishads, the message of unity of soul and God has been given through Mahavakyas. These texts preach about the purpose of life, meditation, the uniqueness of the soul, and salvation.
The most important topics of the Upanishads have been discussed about knowledge, worship, importance of yagyas, Brahma, soul, life, karma, and the world. These texts also discuss the origin, beginning, and eternity of the world.
The texts of Upanishads number 108, and are divided into eight branches of Vedanta, which are divided on the basis of Vedas. These texts play an important role in helping them study and understand Vedanta and preach the path to attain salvation. Upanishads are studied carefully and from a spiritual point of view so that there can be intellectual and spiritual progress.

The Upanishads of the Rig Veda are an important part of Indian religious texts that explain important principles of Vedanta philosophy. Some major Upanishads are mentioned here -

Isha Upanishad -
This Upanishad comes under the Vajasaneyi branch and discusses the relationship between Brahman, the world, the soul, and the gods.

Kena Upanishad -
This Upanishad belongs to the Talvakara branch and it discusses about Brahma which is obtained through experience.

Mundaka Upanishad -
This Upanishad comes under the Atharvavedic branch and discusses in detail the purpose of life, soul, Brahma.

Chandogya Upanishad -
This Upanishad comes under the Samavedic branch and discusses in detail about knowledge, meditation, soul, Brahman, worship, and moksha.

Adhyatma Upanishad -
This Upanishad comes under the Atharvavedic branch and discusses the subject of the soul.

In the Upanishad texts, there has been a detailed discussion about the soul, Brahma, the world, meditation, worship, salvation, path of life, etc. and these texts are the basis of important principles of Vedanta. It gives the message that the path to real knowledge and liberation lies in the identity of the soul and spiritual development.